Joy in the Mystic Law

Joy in the Mystic Law

Thursday, 2 February 2012

Daimoku Video

This is an excellent video of daimoku - Nam Myoho Renge Kyo.

Tuesday, 10 January 2012

Lotus Sutra

Lotus Sutra

The Lotus Sutra is widely regarded as one of the most important and influential sutras, or sacred scriptures, of Buddhism. It is highly valued in the Mahayana tradition, which spread throughout East Asia.

Its key message is that Buddhahood--a condition of absolute happiness, freedom from fear and from all illusions--is inherent in all life. The development of this inner life state enables all people to overcome their problems and live a fulfilled and active life, fully engaged with others and with society. Rather than stressing impermanence and the consequent need to eliminate earthly desires and attachments, the Lotus Sutra asserts the ultimate reality of the Buddha nature inherent in all life. It is therefore a teaching which profoundly affirms the realities of daily life, and which naturally encourages an active engagement with others and with the whole of human society.

The Lotus Sutra is also unique among the teachings of Shakyamuni in that it makes the attainment of enlightenment a possibility open to all people, without distinction based on gender, race, social standing or education. In this way, it is seen to be a full expression of Shakyamuni's compassionate intention of opening the way to enlightenment to all people.

Six Chinese translations are recorded as having been made of the Lotus Sutra (Skt Saddharma-pun-darika-sutra; Chin Miao-fa-lien-hua-ching; Jpn Myoho-renge-kyo). Among these, the fifth-century translation of Kumarajiva (344-413), the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law, is considered to be particularly outstanding and is the basis of the teachings that spread in China and Japan.

The Chinese Buddhist teacher T'ient'ai (538-597) divided the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law into two parts: the first 14 chapters, which he called the theoretical teaching, and the latter 14 chapters, which he called the essential teaching. The theoretical teaching records the preaching of the historical Shakyamuni who is depicted as having first attained enlightenment during this lifetime in India. In the essential teaching, he discards his transient role as the historical Shakyamuni and reveals his true, eternally enlightened identity. The most important doctrine in the essential teaching, T'ient'ai says, is the revelation of this originally and eternally enlightened nature in the depths of Shakyamuni Buddha's life.
Lotus SutraAlmost 2,000 years after Shakyamuni's death, Nichiren, a 13th-century Japanese priest, distilled the profound theory of the Lotus Sutra into a practice which could enable every individual to reveal their Buddhahood, or highest state of life, in the midst of day-to-day reality.
The concluding words of the 16th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, recited daily by members of the SGI, encapsulate the Buddha's compassionate concern:

"At all times I think to myself:
How can I cause living beings
to gain entry into the unsurpassed way
and quickly acquire the body of a Buddha?"

Read more: The Lotus Sutra and SGI President Ikeda's essay The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra

Tuesday, 3 January 2012

Earthly Desires are Enlightenment

Earthly Desires are Enlightenment:
Taking Control of Our Lives

As the sexual behavior of politicians surges to the forefront of public debate, two contrasting undercurrents of American thinking rise into view. One side tells us to suppress desires because they are nothing but trouble—the suppression or even denial of desire should be celebrated as a sign of virtue. Meanwhile, the other tells us that human desire is natural (and good!); that we should trust our feelings and desires, and do whatever they move us to do, so long as we do not infringe on the rights of others. Experience, however, tells us that neither the suppression of nor abandonment to desires leads to satisfaction in life. Then how do we live with the reality of our abundant desires and still become happy and fulfilled?

Nichiren Daishonin’s Buddhism helps shed light on this issue through the concept called "earthly desires are enlightenment." The original term in Japanese is bon’no soku bodai. The Japanese word bon’no derives from the Chinese interpretation of the Sanskrit word klisa (or klesa), which means defilement, pain, affliction, distress, evil passion, moral depravity, worry, trouble, infection or contamination. The Chinese interpretation also implies delusions or temptations arising from passions or ignorance that disturb and distress the mind. The Japanese word soku means to be immediately present or to be the same as. And finally the Japanese word bodai is a transliteration of the Sanskrit bodhi, which means knowledge, understanding, perfect wisdom or the enlightened mind. Put simply, this Buddhist concept tells us that our desires and suffering—all that torments our mind—can be the source of wisdom and happiness.

On the surface, however, this concept is contradictory. Our desires often cause delusion and suffering, which are the exact opposite of wisdom and happiness. In this sense, defining desires as an obstacle to enlightenment, rather than as enlightenment, seems more reasonable. So the logical extension of this line of thought will be that we have to eliminate our desires in order to attain enlightenment. This is exactly what was taught in the monastic Theravada Buddhism, which the populist Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle") Buddhists called Hinayana ("Lesser Vehicle"). Taking this view of desires to the extreme, Theravada Buddhism taught the annihilation of self through religious austerities. In other words, as long as we have a body and mind, we will continue to suffer from our desires. So we must reduce ourselves to nothing, or so those Theravada monks thought.

The Daishonin's Buddhism, however, explains that both "earthly desires" and "enlightenment" are intrinsic to our lives. So any intent to deny either is itself a delusion. In this regard, the Daishonin states: "Among those who wish to become Buddhas through attempting to eradicate earthly desires and shunning the lower nine worlds, there is not one ordinary person who actually attained enlightenment. This is because Buddhahood cannot exist apart from the lower nine worlds" (Gosho Zenshu, p. 403). The Daishonin defines "earthly desires" as "the obstacles to one's practice which arise from greed, anger, stupidity and the like" (The Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin, vol. 1, p. 145). Earthly desires such as greed, anger, stupidity, arrogance and doubt have a negative influence upon our lives, causing delusion and suffering. The Daishonin teaches that since such earthly desires are ever-present, we must develop wisdom and inner strength so that they do not influence us negatively, and so that we may transform these functions into a driving force for our spiritual growth.

The Daishonin stresses the importance of inner strength to control our "earthly desires" as he encourages us to "keep the three paths of earthly desires, karma and suffering in check" (GZ, 984). Desires give rise to actions, but when those desires are steeped in delusion, those actions create negative karma, which in turn leads to suffering, which gives rise to more desire, and so on.

The key for us to develop inner strength to stem this negative cycle lies in our prayer to the Gohonzon, in our chanting of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. The Daishonin states: "Believe in this mandala [the Gohonzon] with all your heart. Nam-myoho-renge-kyo is like the roar of a lion. What sickness can therefore be an obstacle?" (MW-1, 119). Though this was written to the parents of a child suffering from a physical illness, "sickness" can be broadly interpreted as earthly desires or all that causes spiritual or physical anguish such as problems with health, relationships, family harmony, money or career. As long as we firmly believe in the Gohonzon and continue to chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, no suffering or hardship can be an obstacle to our happiness. With a powerful prayer to the Gohonzon, our earthly desires not only cease to cause suffering, but also become an impetus for our wisdom and happiness. The fact that they motivate us to chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo with a strong prayer in itself suggests the transformation of earthly desires into enlightenment. To illustrate this point, the Daishonin states: "Through burning the firewood of earthly desires, one can manifest the wisdom-fire of enlightenment" (GZ, 710).

Because we have earthly desires, that is, suffering and delusion, we pray to the Gohonzon. Our hardships are often our greatest motivation to chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. When we make a determination that our desires and hardships are yet another opportunity to strengthen our faith and our lives, they no longer function as earthly desires that torment us.

Through our prayer we can sublimate our base desires into noble and creative causes. Through the Buddhist practice, an egoist whose only concern in life is to gain material wealth can change into a person of magnanimity who gladly uses wealth for the sake of others' peace and happiness. Sexual desires can be destructive. Shakespeare writes about them as: perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame, savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust (Sonnet 129).
Passion, however, if imbued with wisdom, can become an impetus for our affectionate expression of humanity as the Daishonin states: "Even during the physical union of man and woman, when one chants Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, then earthly desires are enlightenment and the sufferings of birth and death are nirvana" (MW-2, 200).

We cannot avoid our passions. But whether, when they arise, we act wisely and compassionately, or foolishly and selfishly, may determine happiness or suffering in life. The spirit to use whatever desires arise as fuel or "firewood" to empower our prayer to the Gohonzon and thus to bring forth wisdom, is the key to making the principle that "earthly desires are enlightenment" a reality. If we leave the "firewood of earthly desires" alone, they will simply remain a source of suffering. Only when we ignite the firewood with the spark of faith in the Gohonzon, can we bring forth a bright flame of wisdom and happiness from within. Through the concept that "earthly desires are enlightenment" the Daishonin teaches us how to create the greatest possible value from our natural desires and suffering, while neither denying them nor abandoning ourselves to them. This Buddhist principle thus offers us a new approach to the problem of human desire—one that is neither self-denying nor hedonistic.

Viewed from the standpoint of delusion—desire does not "equal" enlightenment. But viewed from the standpoint of enlightenment itself, earthly desires are indeed enlightenment. This is because a Buddha experiences desires while maintaining full control of them, always bringing forth their enlightened quality to the fullest benefit of self and others.

Living Buddhism, February 1999, p.6

The Four Virtues of the Buddha - True Self, Eternity, Purity, Happiness

The Four Virtues of the Buddha:
Breaking Out of the Lesser Self

How we view ourselves is reflected in how we see the world and how we treat others. The less sure we are of ourselves, the more we become fixed on ourselves while disregarding others and the world around us. Selfishness is often the flip side of a lack of self-identity. Even when those who are not really sure of themselves try to do something for others, they are often motivated by selfishness. They may be attempting either to make themselves feel needed by others, or seeking some sort of praise, recognition or even the salvation of their souls for their "altruism." Buddhism views altruism as an expression of one's awakening to one's true self and explains that it stems from compassion, appreciation and a sense of interconnection rather than insecurity. The notion of the "four virtues of the Buddha" describes and encourages a holistic view of self, a view that transcends selfishness.

The Buddha, or enlightened one, is said to possess four virtues: true self, eternity, happiness and purity. The original concept of these four virtues, however, predates Buddhism. Brahmanism, the prevailing religion in Shakyamuni's India, taught that the human being has an enduring soul or essence called atman—"the breath of life." Atman, often translated as "self," was viewed as eternal, happy and pure. Espoused by the Brahmans, then India's highest, priestly caste, Brahmanism explained that the supreme purpose of atman was to acquire wealth and honor. So, by making offerings to the deities, people sought worldly gains. Atman, in this sense, may be viewed as self in pursuit of selfish desire.

In his early teachings, Shakyamuni refuted the Brahmanic view of self and in his later teachings revealed his enlightened perspective on the matter. When people are consumed with egotism, no matter how much they seek wealth and honor, the pain of their hunger will not be eased. So from this standpoint, Shakyamuni taught that the self is impure and transient and causes suffering. In the earlier sutras, he explains that nothing remains constant, there is no such thing as eternal self. Because the self was transient and not enduring, the Buddha taught, attachment to it or anything in this impure and fleeting world was the cause of suffering. In his later teachings, which came to be classified as Mahayana, or "Greater Vehicle" teachings, especially in the Lotus and Nirvana sutras, Shakyamuni expounds an entirely new view of self. He explains that one's true self, that is, one's Buddha nature, is eternal, transcending the cycle of birth and death; it is essentially pure and endowed with happiness. From the viewpoint of Mahayana Buddhism, therefore, true self, eternity, happiness and purity are called the four virtues of the Buddha. In this regard, one Mahayana scripture explains: "The deluded beings are attached to their lesser self and thus suffer. Buddhas and bodhisattvas discard the lesser self. As a result, their self is pure and thus called the greater self. Because they think of all living beings as 'self,' theirs is called the greater self."

While Brahmanism justifies attachment to self, Mahayana Buddhism advocates the inner reform to discard one's lesser self and develop the greater self rooted in compassion. The Nirvana Sutra clarifies this point, saying: "The deluded beings view that in this world, self is eternal, happy and pure, but this is topsy-turvy. The Buddha also views that in this world, self is eternal, happy and pure, and this is the truth." Buddhas are those who are awakened to the greater self of compassion. In this expanded vision of self, they see that their lives are connected to others and the world around them. So Buddhas have genuine appreciation for others and are driven by their desire to contribute to the world around them.

Nichiren Daishonin attributes the four virtues of the Buddha to the four leaders of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth. Bodhisattva Superior Practices (Jogyo) represents true self. Revealing true self means for us to chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo to the Gohonzon, thus manifesting our innate Buddhahood and shedding the lesser self of egotism. Bodhisattva Boundless Practices (Muhengyo) signifies eternity. Through establishing our true self of Buddhahood, we come to understand, perhaps not intellectually but with our innermost heart, the eternity of life, and remain unswayed by our ever-changing circumstances while confidently challenging ourselves. Bodhisattva Pure Practices (Jyogyo) represents purity. Once we are awakened to the greater self of Buddhahood, we are no longer tainted by delusions. With a secure sense of self, we can even positively influence our environment, thus purifying it. Finally Bodhisattva Firmly Established Practices (Anryugyo) signifies happiness—a kind of happiness that withstands all the ups and downs of our lives, including death. Through developing confidence in the Buddha nature as our true self, we free ourselves from trivial concerns for any unnecessary artifice of life and remain at peace with ourselves, knowing that we will ultimately triumph over any obstacle.

It is significant that the four leaders of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth represent the four virtues of the Buddha. As the names of those bodhisattvas indicate, only through our dedicated practice as bodhisattvas—practice dedicated to the happiness of others—can we break through our lesser self and reveal the greater self of Buddhahood. In other words, our bodhisattva practice is the cause for the Buddha's four virtues to manifest in our lives. Yet from another perspective, it may be also said that Buddhas are in essence those who are awakened to their greater self and act for the well-being of others. In this sense, the altruism of Bodhisattva practice is not only the means to overcome the lesser self and develop the four virtues; it is also a direct expression of these four virtues inherent in life, in our Buddha nature. This is why chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, which calls forth our inherent Buddhahood and its corresponding virtues, provides the greatest basis for an altruistic life—a life dedicated to the happiness of others.

The four virtues of the Buddha, from the standpoint of the Daishonin's Buddhism, describe the ideal characteristics of human beings whose view of self is not hindered in any way by selfish ego. Their understanding of self is so encompassing that their own existence and the world around them become indistinguishable. A limited understanding of self, however, leads to egotism, bringing suffering and misery to both oneself and others. True self-knowledge—an awakening to our true, greater self—in this sense is a key to overcoming selfishness.

Living Buddhism, January 1999, p.8

Sunday, 18 December 2011

Academic Honors Conferred upon SGI President Daisaku Ikeda

Dr Daisaku Ikeda is the only individual in the history with the largest number of academic honors conferred to date - a total of 319 academic honors. It is impressive beyond words. 
I sincerely hope that National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University can confer an academic honor to President Ikeda soon in honour of his peace efforts. 
Academic Honors Conferred upon SGI President Daisaku Ikeda (date order)
Title conferred
1May 27, 1975USSRMoscow State UniversityHonorary Doctorate
2Apr 10, 1981PeruNational University of San MarcosHonorary Professor
3May 21, 1981BulgariaSofia UniversityHonorary Doctorate
4Jun 5, 1984ChinaPeking UniversityHonorary Professor
5Jun 9, 1984ChinaFudan UniversityHonorary Professor
6Feb 10, 1987Dominican RepublicAutonomous University of Santo DomingoHonorary Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science
7Mar 1, 1990ArgentinaUniversity of Buenos AiresHonorary Doctorate
8Mar 10, 1990MexicoUniversity of GuanajuatoProfessor Emeritus
9Nov 3, 1990ChinaWuhan UniversityHonorary Professor
10Jan 30, 1991MacauUniversity of East AsiaHonorary Professor
11Apr 21, 1991PhilippinesUniversity of the PhilippinesHonorary Doctorate of Laws
12May 15, 1991ArgentinaUniversity of PalermoHonorary Doctorate
13Jan 30, 1992Hong KongChinese University of Hong KongDistinguished Visiting Professor
14Jun 24, 1992TurkeyAnkara UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Social Science
15Oct 14, 1992ChinaChinese Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Research Professor
16Dec 22, 1992KenyaUniversity of NairobiHonorary Doctorate of Letters(Citation)
17Feb 11, 1993BrazilFederal University of Rio de JaneiroHonorary Doctorate
18Feb 17, 1993ArgentinaNational University of Lomas de ZamoraHonorary Doctorate
19Feb 17, 1993ArgentinaNational University of Lomas de ZamoraHonorary Professor, Faculty of Law
20Feb 19, 1993ArgentinaNational University of CórdobaHonorary Doctorate
21Feb 22, 1993ParaguayNational University of AsunciónHonorary Doctorate
22Feb 26, 1993BrazilUniversity of São PauloHonorary Visiting Professor
23Mar 1, 1993BrazilFederal University of ParanáHonorary Doctorate
24Mar 3, 1993BoliviaUniversity of El ValleHonorary Doctorate
25Nov 4, 1993ChinaShenzhen UniversityHonorary Professor
26Jan 6, 1994ChinaXinjiang Uigun Autonomous Region MuseumHonorary Professor
27May 19, 1994RussiaInternational UniversityHonorary Doctorate
28Jun 1, 1994ItalyUniversity of BolognaHonorary Doctorate
29Jun 15, 1994UKUniversity of GlasgowHonorary Doctorate (Citation)
30Aug 12, 1994ChinaXinjiang UniversityHonorary Professor
31Nov 22, 1994ChinaXiamen UniversityHonorary Professor
32Sep 30, 1995South AfricaUniversity of the NorthHonorary Doctorate of Education
33Nov 3, 1995NepalTribhuvan UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Letters
34Nov 14, 1995MacauUniversity of MacauHonorary Doctorate of Social Sciences
35Mar 14, 1996Hong KongUniversity of Hong KongHonorary Doctorate of Letters(Citation)
36Apr 2, 1996ChinaXinjiang UniversityHonorary President
37Jun 8, 1996USAUniversity of DenverHonorary Doctorate of Education
38Jun 25, 1996CubaUniversity of HavanaHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
39Aug 29, 1996GhanaUniversity of GhanaHonorary Doctorate of Laws
40Nov 2, 1996RussiaFar Eastern State UniversityHonorary Doctorate of International Education
41Nov 17, 1996ChinaSun Yat-sen UniversityHonorary Professor
42Feb 20, 1997ChinaJilin UniversityHonorary Professor
43Mar 18, 1997PhilippinesDe La Salle UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (International Education)
44May 5, 1997Sri LankaUniversity of KelaniyaHonorary Doctorate of Letters
45May 12, 1997ChinaShanghai UniversityHonorary Professor
46Oct 6, 1997ChinaInner Mongolia UniversityHonorary Professor
47Nov 8, 1997MongoliaNational University of MongoliaHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
48Feb 11, 1998PhilippinesUniversity of the City of ManilaHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
49Mar 18, 1998ArgentinaUniversity of MorónHonorary Doctorate
50Apr 2, 1998RussiaInstitute for High Energy PhysicsHonorary Doctorate
51Apr 29, 1998BrazilRio de Janeiro State UniversityHonorary Doctorate
52May 15, 1998Republic of KoreaKyung Hee UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy
53Jul 4, 1998Republic of KoreaChung Cheong CollegeHonorary Professor
54Jul 24, 1998PeruRicardo Palma UniversityHonorary Doctorate
55Jul 24, 1998PeruAssociation of Doctors of Education of PeruHonorary Doctorate
56Nov 1, 1998ChinaYanbian UniversityHonorary Professor
57Nov 25, 1998ChinaNankai UniversityHonorary Professor
58Nov 30, 1998BrazilUniversity of Northern ParanáHonorary Doctorate
59Dec 13, 1998IndiaUniversity of DelhiHonorary Doctorate of Letters(Citation)
60Jan 15, 1999ArgentinaUniversity of FloresHonorary Doctorate
61Apr 5, 1999ChinaSichuan UniversityHonorary Professor
62Apr 17, 1999PeruFederico Villarreal National UniversityHonorary Doctorate
63May 17, 1999Republic of KoreaJeju National UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Korean Language & Literature(Citation)
64Jun 12, 1999BoliviaPrivate University of Santa Cruz de la SierraHonorary Doctorate
65Jul 24, 1999ChinaNortheastern UniversityHonorary Professor
66Aug 24, 1999KyrgyzstanInstitute of Oriental Languages and CulturesHonorary Professor
67Sep 4, 1999PeruNational University of Central PeruHonorary Doctorate
68Sep 10, 1999ChinaHunan Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
69Oct 25, 1999ArgentinaNational University of Lomas de ZamoraHonorary Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences
70Oct 27, 1999ArgentinaNational University of ComahueHonorary Doctorate
71Dec 16, 1999ChinaNanjing UniversityHonorary Professor
72Jan 6, 2000RussiaSt. Petersburg State UniversityHonorary Doctorate (Citation)
73Jan 15, 2000USAUniversity of DelawareHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (Citation)
74Jan 18, 2000USAQueens College, City University of New YorkHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
75Jan 28, 2000Guam (USA)University of GuamHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
76Feb 5, 2000PhilippinesAngeles UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
77Feb 8, 2000ChinaCentral University for NationalitiesHonorary Professor
78Feb 19, 2000ChinaGuangdong University of Foreign StudiesHonorary Professor
79Feb 27, 2000ArgentinaNational University of NordesteHonorary Doctorate
80Mar 10, 2000ChinaNortheast Normal UniversityHonorary Doctorate
81Mar 21, 2000Sakha Republic (Russia)Yakutsk State UniversityHonorary Professor
82Apr 17, 2000El SalvadorLatin American Technical UniversityHonorary Doctorate
83Apr 22, 2000ChinaInner Mongolia Art AcademyPreeminent Honorary Professor
84Apr 24, 2000IndiaSri Sri Sitaramdas Omkarnath Institute of Sanskrit LearningHonorary Doctorate (Mahamahopadhyaya)
85May 5, 2000MongoliaMongolian Institute of LiteratureHonorary Rector
86May 11, 2000ChinaBeijing Administrative CollegeHonorary Professor
87Jun 27, 2000ChinaYunnan UniversityHonorary Professor
88Aug 25, 2000ChinaSouth China Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
89Aug 26, 2000IndiaBundelkhand UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Letters
90Sep 1, 2000VenezuelaUniversity of ZuliaHonorary Doctorate
91Sep 13, 2000PanamaUniversity of PanamaHonorary Doctorate
92Oct 15, 2000IndiaBundelkhand UniversityHonorary Lifetime Professor in the Ambedkar Institute of Social Sciences
93Nov 5, 2000ThailandSiam UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Public Administration
94Nov 13, 2000TongaTonga Institute of Education and Tonga Institute of Science and TechnologyHonorary Professor, Education
95Nov 24, 2000AustraliaUniversity of SydneyHonorary Doctorate of Letters(Citation)
96Nov 29, 2000MalaysiaUniversiti Putra MalaysiaHonorary Doctorate of Letters
97Dec 7, 2000Hong Kong (China)Chinese University of Hong KongHonorary Doctorate of Social Science
98Dec 25, 2000MongoliaMongolian University of Arts and CultureHonorary Doctorate
99Jan 20, 2001IndiaV.B.S. Purvanchal UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Letters
100Feb 16, 2001ChinaGuangdong Provincial Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
101Apr 2, 2001ChinaNorthwest UniversityHonorary Professor
102Apr 28, 2001ChinaAnhui UniversityHonorary Professor
103May 8, 2001Puerto Rico (USA)Carlos Albizu UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters in Behavioral Sciences
104May 14, 2001MongoliaKharakhorum UniversityHonorary Doctorate
105Jun 1, 2001ChinaFujian Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
106Jun 14, 2001ChinaHuaqiao UniversityHonorary Professor
107Jul 14, 2001ChinaJinan UniversityHonorary Professor
108Jul 19, 2001Northern Mariana Islands (USA)Northern Marianas CollegeHonorary Professor
109Oct 5, 2001ChinaSoochow UniversityHonorary Professor
110Oct 23, 2001ChinaLiaoning Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
111Oct 27, 2001PhilippinesUniversity of Southern PhilippinesHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
112Nov 18, 2001ChinaGuangzhou UniversityHonorary Professor
113Dec 8, 2001Republic of KoreaGyeongju UniversityHonorary Professor (Citation)
114Dec 15, 2001Republic of KoreaChangwon National UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Education
115Dec 20, 2001KazakhstanAhmet Yesevi Kazakh-Turkish International UniversityHonorary Professor
116Feb 15, 2002Dominican RepublicTechnological University of SantiagoHonorary Doctorate
117Feb 20, 2002UzbekistanNational Institute of Art and DesignHonorary Professor
118Mar 9, 2002ChinaLiaoning Academy of Social SciencesSenior Research Professor
119Mar 14, 2002PhilippinesGregorio Araneta University FoundationHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
120Mar 19, 2002CambodiaRoyal University of Phnom PenhHonorary Professor
121Apr 1, 2002ChinaLiaoning UniversityHonorary Professor
122Apr 7, 2002USAMorehouse CollegeHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
123Apr 21, 2002ChinaQingdao UniversityHonorary Professor
124Apr 27, 2002IndiaChhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Letters
125May 18, 2002KenyaKenyatta UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
126May 25, 2002ChinaHeilongjiang Provincial Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
127Jun 8, 2002RussiaMoscow State UniversityHonorary Professor
128Jun 23, 2002ChinaNanjing Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
129Jun 28, 2002Republic of KoreaSorabol CollegeHonorary Professor
130Aug 26, 2002IndiaHimachal Pradesh UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Literature
131Sep 28, 2002ChinaRenmin University of ChinaHonorary Professor
132Oct 6, 2002ChinaUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHonorary Professor
133Nov 2, 2002ChinaZhejiang UniversityHonorary Professor
134Nov 20, 2002MongoliaShihihutug Law SchoolHonorary Doctorate
135Nov 28, 2002UkraineKyiv National University of Trade and EconomicsHonorary Doctorate
136Dec 2, 2002Republic of KoreaDong-A UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy
137Dec 12, 2002ChinaShanghai International Studies UniversityHonorary Professor
138Dec 21, 2002ChinaShanghai Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
139Jan 18, 2003IndiaBharathidasan UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Letters
140Feb 23, 2003PeruNational University of PiuraHonorary Doctorate
141Mar 24, 2003TaiwanChinese Culture UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy
142Apr 15, 2003ChinaDalian University of Foreign LanguagesHonorary Professor
143Apr 19, 2003ParaguayUniversity of Columbia del ParaguayHonorary Doctorate of Social Sciences
144Sep 27, 2003PeruJorge Basadre Grohmann National UniversityHonorary Doctorate
145Oct 8, 2003ChinaNorthwest Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
146Oct 18, 2003Republic of KoreaKwangju Women's UniversityHonorary Professor
147Oct 24, 2003ChinaShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityHonorary Professor
148Dec 16, 2003USAChapman UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
149Dec 24, 2003ChinaZhaoqing UniversityHonorary Professor
150Jan 10, 2004Sakha Republic (Russia)Arctic State Institute of Culture and ArtHonorary Professor
151Feb 24, 2004IndiaRabindra Bharati UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Literature
152Feb 28, 2004USAMineral Area CollegeHonorary Professor, Humanities
153Mar 19, 2004ChinaNational Prosecutors College of P.R.C.Honorary Professor
154Mar 29, 2004TaiwanNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Doctorate of Agricultural Sciences
155Apr 1, 2004Buryat Republic (Russia)Buryat State UniversityHonorary Professor
156Apr 14, 2004BrazilLondrina State UniversityHonorary Doctorate
157May 5, 2004BoliviaUniversity of San Francisco Xavier de ChuquisacaHonorary Doctorate
158May 29, 2004ChinaUniversity of Petroleum, East ChinaHonorary Professor
159Jun 6, 2004PhilippinesCapitol UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
160Jun 26, 2004ChinaShanghai Sanda InstituteHonorary Professor
161Jul 22, 2004JordanUniversity of JordanHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (Citation)
162Sep 20, 2004MexicoUniversity of GuadalajaraHonorary Doctorate
163Sep 26, 2004ChinaFujian Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
164Oct 3, 2004ChinaChangchun UniversityHonorary Professor
165Oct 16, 2004ChinaQufu Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
166Nov 4, 2004KyrgyzstanOsh State UniversityHonorary Professor
167Nov 23, 2004Republic of KoreaPaekche Institute of the ArtsHonorary Professor
168Dec 17, 2004MongoliaOtgontenger UniversityHonorary Doctorate
169Jan 21, 2005Northern Mariana Islands (USA)Northern Marianas CollegeHonorary President
170Jan 22, 2005PeruEnrique Guzmán y Valle National University of EducationHonorary Doctorate
171Feb 20, 2005BelarusMinsk State Linguistic UniversityHonorary Professor
172Mar 19, 2005PhilippinesBatangas State UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Pedagogy
173Apr 1, 2005ChinaShanghai University of Finance and EconomicsHonorary Professor
174Apr 29, 2005ParaguayNational University of ItapúaHonorary Doctorate
175May 7, 2005ChinaBeijing Language and Culture UniversityHonorary Professor
176May 27, 2005BrazilState College of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Cornélio ProcópioHonorary Doctorate
177Jun 17, 2005ChinaHuazhong Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
178Jul 14, 2005ChinaGuangxi Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
179Sep 16, 2005MongoliaMongolian Academy of Sciences Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and LawHonorary Professor, Philosophy
180Sep 18, 2005VietnamVietnam National University, HanoiHonorary Doctorate
181Oct 8, 2005ChinaEast China University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Professor
182Oct 12, 2005Serbia and MontenegroBraća Karić UniversityHonorary Doctorate
183Dec 20, 2005RussiaAcademy of Security, Defense, and Law EnforcementProfessor
184Dec 21, 2005IndiaSymbiosis International Educational Centre (Deemed University)Honorary Doctorate of Literature
185Jan 23, 2006RussiaUrals State UniversityHonorary Doctorate
186Feb 8, 2006LaosNational University of LaosHonorary Professor, Humanities
187Mar 16, 2006PhilippinesPampanga Agricultural CollegeHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
188Apr 3, 2006ChinaHunan UniversityHonorary Professor
189Apr 28, 2006UkraineNational Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute"Honorary Doctorate
190May 5, 2006ChinaEast China Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
191May 22, 2006ChinaNanjing Arts InstituteHonorary Professor
192May 29, 2006IndiaVisva-Bharati UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Literature (Deshikottama)
193Jun 2, 2006ChinaSouthwest University of Political Science and LawHonorary Professor
194Jun 6, 2006USASouthern Illinois University CarbondaleHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (Citation)
195Jun 8, 2006USALos Angeles Southwest CollegeHonorary Professor in Arts
196Jun 16, 2006ChinaShaoguan UniversityHonorary Professor
197Jun 17, 2006Republic of KoreaDongshin UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Public Administration
198Jul 3, 2006ThailandMaejo UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy in Administrative Science
199Sep 22, 2006BrazilCatholic College of Economic Science of BahiaHonorary Doctorate
200Oct 7, 2006ChinaBeijing Normal UniversityHonorary Professor (Citation)
201Nov 24, 2006PhilippinesUniversity of Rizal SystemHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
202Dec 8, 2006ChinaDalian University of TechnologyHonorary Professor
203Feb 6, 2007Republic of KoreaDongju CollegeHonorary Professor
204Feb 26, 2007ChinaGuizhou UniversityHonorary Professor
205Mar 13, 2007RussiaBaikal National University of Economics and LawHonorary Professor
206Mar 20, 2007VenezuelaRafael Belloso Chacín UniversityHonorary Doctorate
207Mar 20, 2007VenezuelaSanta María UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Laws
208Mar 23, 2007ItalyUniversity of PalermoHonorary Doctorate of Communication Sciences
209Apr 2, 2007BrazilBrazilian Academy of PhilosophyHonorary Doctorate
210Apr 17, 2007USAUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
211Apr 18, 2007ChinaHarbin Engineering UniversityHonorary Professor
212Apr 29, 2007BrazilFederal University of Mato Grosso do SulHonorary Doctorate
213May 5, 2007ChinaTianjin Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
214May 28, 2007TaiwanSouthern Taiwan University of TechnologyHonorary Doctorate of Engineering
215May 31, 2007RussiaRussian State University for the HumanitiesHonorary Doctorate
216Jun 23, 2007PeruNational University of El SantaHonorary Doctorate
217Jul 4, 2007Sakha Republic (Russia)Yakut State Agricultural AcademyHonorary Professor
218Jul 9, 2007RussiaFar Eastern State Technical UniversityHonorary Professor
219Sep 13, 2007PhilippinesUniversity of Southeastern PhilippinesHonorary Doctorate of Education
220Oct 6, 2007ChinaShaanxi Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
221Oct 8, 2007MexicoUniversity of Humanistic IntegrationHonorary Doctorate of Human Sciences
222Oct 10, 2007BrazilIngá UniversityHonorary Professor
223Oct 21, 2007ChinaChina Youth University for Political SciencesHonorary Professor
224Oct 24, 2007MongoliaMongolian State University of EducationHonorary Doctorate
225Nov 30, 2007ChinaWenzhou Medical CollegeHonorary Professor
226Dec 17, 2007ChinaShanghai Normal UniversityHonorary Lifetime Professor
227Jan 19, 2008Dominican RepublicAutonomous University of Santo DomingoHonorary Doctorate (Citation)
228Jan 21, 2008TaiwanNational Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy in Management
229Jan 26, 2008PhilippinesLaguna State Polytechnic UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Philosophy in Humanities
230Mar 1, 2008ChinaHunan University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Professor
231Mar 21, 2008KyrgyzstanI. Arabaev Kyrgyz State UniversityHonorary Doctorate
232Mar 31, 2008ChinaJiaying UniversityHonorary Professor
233Apr 2, 2008RussiaTula State Pedagogical UniversityHonorary Professor
234Apr 16, 2008ChinaHebei UniversityHonorary Professor
235May 4, 2008ChinaYanan UniversityLifetime Professor
236May 30, 2008ChinaEastern Liaoning UniversityHonorary Lifetime Professor
237Jun 2, 2008ChinaChangchun University of TechnologyHonorary Professor
238Jun 17, 2008BrazilAnhangüera UniversityHonorary Doctorate
239Jun 20, 2008BrazilItalo-Brazilian UniversityHonorary Doctorate
240Jul 10, 2008PhilippinesBenguet State UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
241Jul 22, 2008TaiwanChungyu Institute of TechnologyHonorary Professor
242Jul 24, 2008TaiwanTainan University of TechnologyHonorary Professor
243Sep 18, 2008PhilippinesIfugao State College of Agriculture and ForestryHonorary Doctorate of Education in Ancient Learning, Culture and World Peace
244Oct 11, 2008PhilippinesUniversidad de ManilaHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
245Oct 29, 2008MongoliaMongolia University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
246Dec 3, 2008ChinaDalian UniversityHonorary Professor
247Jan 19, 2009UzbekistanUzbekistan State Institute of ArtsHonorary Professor
248Feb 24, 2009MalaysiaOpen University MalaysiaHonorary Doctorate of Arts (Humanities)
249Mar 16, 2009BoliviaUniversity of Aquino-BoliviaHonorary Doctorate
250Mar 21, 2009DenmarkUniversity College SouthHonorary Doctorate
251Apr 2, 2009Republic of KoreaKorea Maritime UniversityUniversity Professor
252Apr 10, 2009KyrgyzstanIssyk-Kul State UniversityHonorary Professor
253Apr 17, 2009ChinaFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityHonorary Professor
254Apr 24, 2009ChinaHenan Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
255May 18, 2009UKQueen's University BelfastHonorary Doctorate of Laws(Citation)
256May 28, 2009ChinaXinjiang University of Finance and EconomicsHonorary Professor
257Jun 29, 2009PhilippinesSouthern Luzon State UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
258Jul 16, 2009BrazilFederal University of RondôniaHonorary Doctorate
259Sep 4, 2009Republic of KoreaHongik UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Literature
260Sep 24, 2009Macau (China)Asia International Open University (Macau)Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy
261Sep 26, 2009BrazilMaranhão School of GovernmentHonorary Professor
262Sep 28, 2009BrazilSilva e Souza Integrated CollegeHonorary Doctorate of Architecture and Urban Engineering
263Oct 10, 2009IndonesiaUniversitas IndonesiaHonorary Doctorate in Philosophy and Peace
264Oct 14, 2009ChinaZhongkai University of Agriculture and EngineeringHonorary Professor
265Oct 25, 2009ChinaDalian Polytechnic UniversityEmeritus Professor
266Oct 28, 2009Sakha Republic (Russia)Yakutsk Teacher-training College No.1Honorary Professor
267Nov 1, 2009ChinaSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityHonorary Professor
268Nov 6, 2009ChinaXi'an University of TechnologyHonorary Professor
269Nov 23, 2009ChinaNingxia UniversityHonorary Lifetime Professor
270Dec 8, 2009TaiwanYu Da UniversityHonorary Professor
271Dec 15, 2009MexicoEnrique Díaz de León UniversityHonorary Doctorate
272Dec 23, 2009ChinaXi'an Peihua UniversityHonorary Professor
273Jan 15, 2010USAGuam Community CollegeHonorary Professor
274Jan 27, 2010ChinaAnhui University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Professor
275Feb 24, 2010UzbekistanFine Arts Institute, Uzbekistan Academy of SciencesHonorary Doctorate
276Feb 27, 2010ChinaXi'an International UniversityHonorary Professor
277Mar 10, 2010ChinaGuangdong University of Business StudiesHonorary Professor
278Mar 16, 2010VenezuelaBicentennial University of AraguaHonorary Doctorate of Education
279Mar 16, 2010VenezuelaBicentennial University of AraguaHonorary Professor
280Mar 21, 2010ChinaXi'an Jiaotong UniversityHonorary Professor
281Mar 26, 2010PhilippinesRamon Magsaysay Technological UniversityCentennial Honorary Professor
282Apr 2, 2010ArmeniaYerevan State Academy of Fine ArtsHonorary Doctorate
283Apr 5, 2010ChinaSichuan Academy of Social SciencesHonorary Professor
284Apr 15, 2010ChinaXinjiang Medical UniversityHonorary Professor
285Apr 15, 2010ChinaGuangxi Arts InstituteLifetime Honorary Professor
286Apr 20, 2010ChinaShaoxing UniversityHonorary Professor
287May 4, 2010CanadaUniversité LavalHonorary Doctorate of Education (Citation)
288May 13, 2010ChinaTsinghua UniversityHonorary Professor (Citation)
289May 28, 2010ChinaBeijing City UniversityHonorary Professor
290Jun 8, 2010ChinaNingbo UniversityHonorary Professor
291Jun 9, 2010ChinaZhejiang Ocean UniversityHonorary Professor
292Jun 28, 2010USAGeorge Mason UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
293July 2, 2010TaiwanNational Taiwan University of ArtsHonorary Professor
294July 29, 2010TaiwanNational University of KaohsiungHonorary Professor
295Aug 2, 2010MalaysiaUniversity of MalayaHonorary Doctorate of Humanities (Citation)
296Aug 17, 2010KyrgyzstanOsh Humanitarian Pedagogical InstituteHonorary Professor
297Aug 17, 2010KyrgyzstanOsh Agricultural InstituteHonorary Professor
298Sep 8, 2010ChilePedro de Valdivia UniversityHonorary Doctorate
299Oct 9, 2010PhilippinesUniversity of Southern MindanaoHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
300Nov 21, 2010USAUniversity of Massachusetts BostonHonorary Doctorate of Humane Letters
301Nov 28, 2010BrazilFederal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of AmazonasHonorary Doctorate
302Dec 1, 2010ChinaDalian Maritime UniversityHonorary Professor
303Dec 2, 2010BrazilSão Paulo Metropolitan UniversityHonorary Professor
304Dec 10, 2010BrazilFederal University of Mato GrossoHonorary Doctorate
305Dec 22, 2010TaiwanNational Formosa UniversityHonorary Doctorate
306Dec 23, 2010Republic of KoreaKonyang UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Business Administration
307Jan 29, 2011MacauMacao Polytechnic InstituteHonorary Professor
308Mar 2, 2011KyrgyzstanKyrgyz-Russian Academy of EducationHonorary Professor
309May 18, 2011MacauMacau University of Science and TechnologyHonorary Professor
310May 26, 2011ChinaHainan Normal UniversityHonorary Professor
311Jul 12, 2011Republic of KoreaChungju National UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Business Administration
312Jul 29, 2011PhilippinesPangasinan State UniversityHonorary Doctorate of Humanities
313Sep 16, 2011Republic of KoreaPukyong National UniversityHonorary Doctorate of International and Area Studies
314Sep 25, 2011ZambiaUniversity of ZambiaHonorary Doctorate of Laws
315Oct 13, 2011PhilippinesCentral Luzon State UniversityHonorary Lifetime Professor
316Oct 20, 2011ChinaJinggangshan UniversityHonorary Professor
317Oct 25, 2011UKUniversity of BuckinghamHonorary Doctorate of Letters
318Nov 9, 2011ChinaJimei UniversityHonorary Professor
319Nov 18, 2011RussiaRussian State University of Trade and EconomicsHonorary Doctorate